Title:                               Fundamentals of Telecom: Basics of Voice & Data Communications


Prerequisites:              None


Duration:                       2 Days


Course Outline:           The revolutionary changes that are sweeping through the Telecommunications industry are directly affecting almost every business decision made today.  This course is designed for individuals who are new to the world of voice & data communications and need a solid understanding of the technologies and issues that are driving rapid growth and opportunity.


Module One:                Introduction to Communications

Module Two:                Basic Telephony Concepts

Module Three:             PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) Overview

Module Four:               Customer Premise Telecommunications Equipment: Products, Applications, and Services.

Module Five:                Introduction to Data Communications

Module Six:                  Local Area Networks

Module Seven:            Wide Area Networking & LAN Internetworking

Module Eight:              Introduction to Voice Over IP and Computer Telephony Integration

 Module One:     Introduction to Communications


Module One provides an introduction to the concept of communications.  This module explores the development of the modern Public Switched Telephone Network and provides students with practical real world examples of equipment and services found in modern companies and telecommunications service providers.

Training Objectives 

1.       Understand the history of the modern public network.

2.       Components of a Telecommunications Network.

3.       The structure and topology of the PSTN.

4.       The application of voice and data communications technology in the modern enterprise.


1-0:       Introduction to the concept of communications.

1-1:       Key milestones in the development of the modern PSTN.

1-2:       Introduction to the modern PSTN.

1-3:       Intro to Telecom terminology.

1-4:       The history of divestiture and the effects of deregulation.

1-5:       The North American and International Numbering Plans.

1-6:       Overview of the Telecommunications Industry in 2000.

Module Two: Basic Telephony Concepts

Module Two is designed to provide the students with exposure to a series of both practical and theory based concepts.  The module covers both voice communications prerequisite topics. 

Training Objectives:


1.                   Understand physical transmission media and techniques employed in modern communications systems.

2.                   Learn the characteristics of human speech and the generation of electrical signals in a modern telephone.

3.                   Develop an understanding of Analog and digital signals.  Explore the pros and cons of both Analog and Digital transmission.


2-1:       Physical media utilized in communications.  UTP/STP, & Coaxial Copper Wiring, Fiber Optic cables, Wireless, and Satellite transmission techniques reviewed.  Distribution frames MDF, IDF.

2-2:       Transmission of signals in physical media - The concept of Bandwidth.

2-3:       The basics of electricity, current, voltage, & resistance.

2-4:       Wave characteristics.

2-5:       The concept of Analog and Digital signals.

2-6:       The basics of human speech and hearing.

2-7:       Converting voice into an analog electrical signal: The operation of the telephone set.

2-8:       Analog signaling, transmission loss, noise, filters.

2-9:       Analog to Digital conversion techniques; Pros & Cons.

2-10:     Techniques used to digitally encode analog voice signals - Pulse Code Modulation.

2-11:     Theory of Frequency and Time Division Multiplexing.

2-12:     Concept of Circuit Switching Vs. dedicated circuits.


Module Three: PSTN (Public Switched telephone Network) Overview


Module Three builds on Module Two with a detailed exploration of voice communications.  In this module students become aware of the overall structure and operation of the public voice network and develop and understanding of the equipment, trunking, and services used by their company.  Module Three further explores the operation and configuration of Customer Premise Equipment.

Training Objectives:


1.                   The design and operation of transmission technologies.

2.                   The requirement for Signaling.

3.                   Wireless Technologies explored.



3-1:       Switch Hierarchies, Routing, and the structure of the PSTN.

3-2:       Overview of available trunk types with special emphasis on Direct Inward Dial trunks.  Loop Start, Ground Start, E&M, WATS, DID explained.

3-3:       Operation and configuration of T-1 and T-3.

3-4:       ISDN BRI and PRI explained, with special emphasis on the practical advantages of ISDN services

3-5:       Fiber optic transmission technologies, introduction to SONET standard & DWDM.

3-6:       Signaling in the modern PSTN, In Band and Out of Band Signaling explained, Overview of SS7 and LAPD. 

3-7:       Local Number Portability (LNP) and AIN - The Advanced Intelligent Network.

3-8:       Caller ID, ANI/DNIS discussed.

3-9:       Wireless basics

3-10:     Digital wireless standards for voice & data communications

3-11:     Emerging wireless technologies.


Practical Applications


1.                   Example of corporate usage of Direct Inward Dial trunks.

2.                   Applications of T-1 / T-3.

3.                   Advantages and applications of ISDN BRI and ISDN PRI.

4.                   Typical pricing information for T-1, T-3, and ISDN BRI / PRI services will be presented.

5.                   The use of Fiber Optic media in the PSTN

Module Four: Customer Premise Telecommunications Equipment: Products, Applications, and Service

Training Objectives:

1.                   Concept of CPE PBX defined.

2.                   Introduction to PBXs, KSUs, and Centrex Services.

3.                   The evolving requirements of Enterprise Communications Services, IP PBXs.


4-1:       Basic operation and capabilities of PBXs.

4-2:       Trunk operation with CPE: LS, GS, E&M, DID Trunks, explained.

4-3:       PBX Features and functions.

4-4:       System management features.

4-5:       System functions: Routing, ARS, Restrictions, Call Accounting and Service Modes. 

4-6:       Voice Mail

4-7:       Auto Attendants

4-8:       ACDs and IVRs explained.

4-9:    Private Networking topologies.  The multi-site company.    Tie lines, Virtual Private Networks, and transparent dialing plans.                            

4-10:     Centrex Services.  Overview of services offered.

4-11:     Muliplexers.

4-12:     Call Center requirements for Customer Premise Telecom Equipment.

4-13:     Introduction to Computer Telephony Integration issues & Emerging IP PBXs.

Practical Applications:


1.                   Sample reviews of industry leading PBXs and Hybrid Key Systems

Module Five:     Intro to Data Communications

Module five presents the student with a solid overview of the development of data communications technologies and techniques. 


Training Objectives:


1.                   Understand the need for data communications.

2.                   Explore the different requirements of voice and data communications – Non Real Time Vs Real Time information transmission.

3.                   Explore the history of data communications

4.                   Understand the concept of communications codes or protocols.

5.                   Examine data packets; headers, trailers, error correction and more.

6.                   Examine the equipment used for data communications DTE / DCE.

7.                   The OSI Model.




5-1:       The historical evolution of data communications.

5-2:       Definition of “Data”.

5-3:       The Concept of Packetization.

5-4:       Timing and Packet switching data.  Redundancy and error control.

5-5:       Data communications equipment DSU/CSU, Terminals, modems, packet switches and more.

5-6:       The X.25 Packet network

5-7:       Introduction to Frame Relay & ATM.

5-8:       The OSI Model in context

Module Six:       Local Area Networks

Module six introduces the student to the technologies and applications of modern Local Area Networks.  In this module the knowledge gained in modules five is applied to the understanding of LANs.

Training Objectives:


1.                   Learn the advantages of LANs.

2.                   Examine the physical media used in LANs: UTP, STP, Coaxial, Wireless, infrared.

3.                   Understand the basic physical topology of LANs: Bus, Star, and Ring.

4.                   Examine LAN components, NICs, Hubs & Switches.

5.                   Internetworking with Bridges & Routers.

6.                   Understand the unique capabilities of Network Operating Systems.

7.                   LAN implementation using Ethernet and Token Ring protocols.

8.                   Introduction to Networking protocols.

9.                    Examine FDDI/CDDI.




6-1:       Introduction to Local Area Networks: “From SneakerNet to Ethernet.”

6-2:       The advantages of LANs.

6-3:       PC Network Server Operating Systems: Windows NT, Linux, and Novell Netware.  Introduction to Networking protocols: IPX & TCP/IP.            

6-4:       The physical layer: Wiring, Network Interface Cards, and hubs.

6-5:       MAC addresses.

6-6:       LAN topologies.

6-7:       Introduction to Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet.

6-8:       Introduction to Token Ring & FDDI.

6-9:       Internetworking LANs: Bridges and Routers.

Practical Applications:


1.       Module Six provides the students with a detailed awareness of LAN technologies that they encounter every day.

2.       Working with the instructor students will install a hub, and examine the operation of a Bay Networks 350T LAN switch.


Module Seven: Wide Area Networking & LAN Internetworking

Module seven is designed to encourage students to explore the technologies commonly used to provide LAN Internetworking.

Training Objectives:


1.                   Understand the use of analog and digital circuits in WANs

2.                   Understand the differences between Public and Private networks.

3.                   Examine the packet technologies used in Virtual Private Networks for both Voice and Data.

4.                   Understand the basic structure of the Internet and Corporate Intranets.



7-1:       WANs defined.  File exchange, email, Intranets, etc.

7-2:       WAN access: Analog circuits & modems, Switched 56, xDSL, and ISDN Basic rate.

7-2:       Packet based networks explored.  Typical topologies and physical infrastructure examined.

7-3:       X.25, Frame Relay, and ATM networks introduced.  Pros and Cons of each explored.

7-4:       LAN internetworking revisited: The operation of Bridges, Switches, and Routers in LAN/WAN communications.

7-5:       The structure and operation of the Internet & Corporate Intranets.

Practical Applications

1.                   Students will examine typical applications that require LAN Internetworking across WANs such as email.

2.                   Instructor led demonstration of LAN internetworking using a Router and the TCP/IP protocol.  Students will use commands such as “ping” to explore the transmission of packets through a simulated WAN

Module Eight:   Computer Telephony Integration & Voice Over IP

Module eight builds on the students understanding of both voice and data communications technologies to develop an understanding of the complex interactions that are common in modern CT applications. 

Training Objectives:


1.                   Develop and awareness of the need for Computer Telephony.

2.                   Understand the basic technical requirements of typical CTI installations.



8-1:       Introduction to CTI.

            Screen Pops, database lookups, cradle to grave call control, advanced customer care capabilities enabled by CTI.

8-2:       Standards used in CTI: TAPI & TSAPI explained.

8-3:       Introduction to the concept of Voice over data networks.

8-4:       Voice Over IP.  Standards, trends and examples.

8-5:       Wrap up and review



End of Program